And, thanks to a U.N. treaty, no nation can. Nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction are not allowed in Earth orbit, on celestial bodies or in other outer-space locations. Nevertheless, some private individuals and organizations have claimed ownership of celestial bodies, such as the Moon, and are actively involved in "selling" parts of them through certificates of ownership termed "Lunar deeds", "Martian deeds" or similar. While the ultimate interpretation of these matters is up to lawyers, here are some of the major questions: Access to space. For example, even if you can’t legally own the moon, ... To answer the question, no one owns the moon, but the laws surrounding its ownership are still very murky. “The moon is a common property of the international community, so individuals and states cannot own it. “The moon is a common property of the international community, so individuals and states cannot own it. As you would expect, the topic of ownership of land on the Moon is legally, politically, economically and technically complex. So even if you have lots of certificates from the Lunar Embassy or a similar site, Finkelstein said, those claims will never be recognized. The moon has been in plain view for all of human history, but it's only within the past few decades that it's been possible to travel there. After researching at a community college, Hope believed he had found a loophole based on the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which says that “no nation by appropriation shall have sovereignty or control over any of the satellite bodies,” yet the document never mentions individuals. NY 10036. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. Well individuals have been professing to possess the moon for as far back as several years.So who owns the moon? This (marginally ninkompoopish) notion all begins with a 1967 legal document known as the Outer Space Treaty. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. Who legally owns the moon? Individual nations are also responsible for all governmental and nongovernmental activities conducted by their citizens. While this makes resource hunting legal for U.S. citizens, some experts have said this could violate the Outer Space Treaty. As of 2019, 109 nations are bound by the Treaty, and another 23 have signed the agreement but have yet to be officially recognised. So far, no paperwork has come to light supporting Mr. Juergens's claim [source: CNN ]. These states must also "avoid harmful contamination" due to space activities. Please refresh the page and try again. The price per unit is $124.95. The field of space law evolved to deal with questions such as property rights, weapons in space, protection of astronauts and other matters. A Space Lawyer Answers. The United Nations passed several regulations that prohibit ownership of the moon. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. Everyone and no one.” Space Law Open to Interpretation Credit: Niall Carson/PA Whether you're into mining, energy or … About; Credits; Fifty years after the Apollo 11 mission, the field of outer-space law is growing. Who owns the moon? To support the Outer Space Treaty, four other treaties were put into place in the 1960s and 1970s to support peaceful space exploration. No one owns the moon. America, Russia, China etc. (In other words, peace is the only acceptable use of outer-space locations). He calls other similar companies “criminals” for trying to sell properties that they do not own and compares his outer space acquisitions to kings in the 1500s who claimed lands before even going there. No one can own any property in outer space.” Joanna Gabrynowiczi, a research professor and director at the National Center for Remote Sensing, Air and Space Law, told us that it’s “ clear that any nation that is a signatory to the Outer Space Treaty can not appropriate the moon. Who owns the moon? More recently, entrepreneur Dennis Hope, declared himself to be the owner of the Moon. UNISPACE III (July 1999): Protecting the space environment, giving developing countries more access to space and protecting Earth's environment. For more than three decades, the Lunar Embassy Corporation. By Jason Koebler , … Meet the Man Who Owns the Moon A loophole in a United Nations charter has allowed Dennis Hope to sell plots on the moon for more than 30 years. Or do all of us own a piece of it. In the year after the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, the United Nations General Assembly created an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOUS). That should settle the question. On the other hand, countries such as Russia and somewhat less explicitly Brazil and Belgium hold that … For the moment, the Outer Space Treaty says that space and celestial bodies cannot be claimed by other nations, but it is unclear how these provisions would apply to private companies. Thus, all activities would conform to international law, including the United Nations Charter. The Moon, like the high seas, is a global commons.”. The Extraterrestrial Passport and Nationality, the businessman filed a declaration of ownership for the moon with the United Nations. Get breaking space news and the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and more! In 1960, the International Institute of Space Law, a nongovernmental organization, was created to promote international cooperation in the space law-making process. at McGill University in Montreal, told Stephen Ornes in Discover Magazine. For those who knew their world history, it also rang some alarm bells. Who Owns the Moon? But some important underlying issues are not. While there are treaties that have been voluntarily signed by many nations, technological advances mean that private companies can now take part in space exploration, and these entities may not be covered under some existing treaties (depending on one's legal interpretation of them). Indeed, there is strong precedent in human history for nation-states making such claims. Most likely, this is the best-known picture of a flag ever taken: Buzz Aldrin standing next to the first U.S. flag planted on the Moon. lunar property can be purchased for $19.99, plus $10 in shipping and handling, $1.51 in planetary and lunar tax and $2.50 for a copy of the official certificate of ownership. The moon, for example, is a land flowing with milk and honey -- if by "milk" and "honey" you mean oxygen, water and prospective sources of fuel and construction materials. Also, national priorities change over time, and those priorities may not be reflected in treaties that were created decades ago. “no nation by appropriation shall have sovereignty or control over any of the satellite bodies,” yet the document never mentions individuals. But it’s unclear what will happen to these properties if the case finds itself in court in the future. Dennis Hope, 66, claims to own the moon and has made more than $10million selling acres of it since 1980 A businessman claiming to sell acres … Space-faring nations have agreed to a variety of policies and treaties that concern activities in space exploration. Ultimately, Who Owns the Moon! When people hear for the first time that I am a lawyer practicing and teaching something called “space law,” the question they ask most frequently, often with a big smile or a twinkle in the eye, is: “So tell me, who owns the moon?” When Neil Armstrong planted the American flag on the Moon in 1969, there was panic over the legal and political implications. By Jason Koebler , … Meet the Man Who Owns the Moon A loophole in a United Nations charter has allowed Dennis Hope to sell plots on the moon for more than 30 years. (In … There was a problem. The U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act (see above) does not allow for territorial claims. Today, several universities worldwide offer programs and degrees in space law. Everyone and no one.” Space Law Open to Interpretation Credit: Niall Carson/PA Whether you're into mining, energy or … About; Credits; Fifty years after the Apollo 11 mission, the field of outer-space law is growing. clear that any nation that is a signatory to the Outer Space Treaty can not appropriate the moon. This led to the. But it’s unclear what will happen to these properties if the case finds itself in court in the future. raviet31. 25 Answers. There is currently no law governing property ownership or protection of our planet’s only moon. In 2012, for example, a NASA planetary science budget cut led NASA to withdraw from the European-led ExoMars project, forcing the European Space Agency to seek another partner (which ended up being Roscosmos). Most likely, this is the best-known picture of a flag ever taken: Buzz Aldrin standing next to the first U.S. flag planted on the Moon. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. In order to choose which piece of Terra Luna he wants to sell, Hope simply closes his eyes and randomly points to a moon diagram. Answer Save. Previous claims are not recognized by any authority, and have no legal standing. Who Owns the Moon? The most major international project, the International Space Station, has an international treaty (and various other provisions) governing its operations among the 15 member nations, covering situations such as crimes or proprietary rights. The Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984 covers launch situations by U.S. citizens. The area is then colored in red to illustrate that it’s no longer available and the owner is provided with images of their, Some of these owners have big future plans for their properties, including, a golf course, he says, which will get tricky, because, “even a one-degree pitch would send the ball into outer space.”, The Lunar Embassy does not sell properties near historical landmarks,and Hope told us that he. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. No one can own any property in outer space.”. Who Legally Owns the Moon. So even if you have lots of certificates from the Lunar Embassy or a similar site, Finkelstein said, those claims will never be recognized. In 2013, Mr. Hope claimed to have sold … In principle, each nation retains control over its own elements and personnel; in most cases, however, damages cannot be claimed among the five major signatories on the station under a "cross-waiver of liability" clause on all contracts. Who owns the moon? By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. Because space is an area without defined boundaries, there are many questions about legal jurisdiction on spacecraft orbiting Earth and other celestial bodies. The FAA is also working on guidelines to protect space passengers when tourism companies start operating. © Hope has also claimed ownership of Mars, Venus, Mercury, and one of Jupiter’s moons and said that he doesn’t “sell in other planets because [he] can’t find maps of them to carve out subdivisions.”. To make these ventures legally possible in the United States, the Senate passed the Space Act of 2015 (U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act) on November 10, 2015 by unanimous consent. There have been various legal claims that have been made by other individuals for ownership of the moon. The area is then colored in red to illustrate that it’s no longer available and the owner is provided with images of their newly-purchased property, but these images are only available after a completed point of sale. to be used by those who own property on the moon. who owns the moon, ... it's not clear who would own the materials once they're extracted. According to Hope, more than 600 acres of land on the moon belongs to millions of people around the world, including celebrities, such as Barbara Walters, Tom Cruise, John Travolta, Nicole Kidman, and former Presidents Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, and George W. Bush. You will receive a verification email shortly. Relevance. Uncrewed rockets heading for space and high altitudes must receive special permission from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) underFAA Regulation 101. Extraterrestrial real estate refers to claims of land ownership on other planets, natural satellites, or parts of space by certain organizations or individuals. Weapons in space. The Moon, like the high seas, is a global commons.”. By Leonard David 10 December 2008. For those who knew their world history, it also rang some ala… Following the conference, UNOOSA worked more closely with developing countries to develop their space technology capabilities. Favorite Answer. but Hope explains that it’s more of a novelty symbolizing hope for the future. The fundamental treaty is the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, or simply the "Outer Space Treaty." No country owns the moon. When people hear for the first time that I am a lawyer practicing and teaching something called “space law,” the question they ask most frequently, often with a big smile or a twinkle in the eye, is: “So tell me, who owns the moon?” However, space law remains a challenging field to define. Perhaps the most famous effort at putting weapons into space was the United States' Strategic Defense Initiative, sometimes nicknamed "Star Wars." That, No one owns the moon. They were determined not to repeat that mistake of the old European colonial powers when it came to decide on the legal status of the moon; at … This pact, which has now been ratified by over one hundred nations, aims to codify how the human race can legitimately exploit celestial bodies. Some of these owners have big future plans for their properties, including a golf course, he says, which will get tricky, because “even a one-degree pitch would send the ball into outer space.” The Lunar Embassy does not sell properties near historical landmarks,and Hope told us that he turned down a $50 million offer last year from someone who wanted to buy the entire northern region of the moon. No one owns the moon. ... Any suggestion that the moon might become, legally speaking, part of US backwaters might fuel such concerns, and possibly give rise to international disputes harmful to both the US space program and US interests as a whole. COPUOUS also formed two subcommittees in 1962 to deal with legal issues, and scientific and technical developments; secretariat services are provided by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). New York, The 1967 Outer Space Treaty provides the foundation for space law. The answer seems straightforward: no nation can claim the Moon as sovereignty, so the Moon belongs to all nations of the world. Better still, it could be brimming over with helium-3, an isotope prized for its potential uses in nuclear fusion . There have been, however, some debates over the years about some of the major principles of space law. Both superpowers agreed that “colonization” on Earth had been responsible for tremendous human suffering and many armed conflicts that had raged over the last centuries. President Ronald Reagan first announced it in 1983 by. Wh “I don’t see a loophole,” Ram Jakhu, law professor at the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University in Montreal, told Stephen Ornes in Discover Magazine. Visit our corporate site. Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! Nobody owns the moon. The Outer Space Treaty means therefore that - no matter whose national flags are planted on the lunar surface - no nation can 'own' the Moon. Who Legally Owns the Moon. These people claim that due to their ancestors having transferred ownership for … It was ratified in 1967, largely based on a set of legal principles the general assembly accepted in 1962. But whether Hope’s legally entitled to own celestial bodies or not, no one’s stopping him, and his business is still operating. China and Canada have each prosecuted an individual trying to sell lunar plots. Who owns any planet/moon/asteroid or whatever should be answered by, "no one", but at the same time, any probe, colonization platform, or spacecraft should be owned by whoever put it there. As you would expect, the topic of ownership of land on the Moon is legally, politically, economically and technically complex. These treaties (referred to below by their nicknames) are: COPUOUS has also created five sets of principles to support these treaties. These claims are, sadly, false. It started in the 1970s when Hope was freshly divorced and quickly running out of money. See generally: Imperialism and colonization of the new world. By that token, the moon became something of a "global commons" legally accessible to all countries - two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. And just because the U.S. or U.N. never responded to this person's letter, that does not mean that he automatically became the owner of the Moon and the other planets. That ’s very clear in the U.N. treaty. In the United States, there are two major companies hoping to perform asteroid mining in the coming years: Deep Space Industries and Planetary Resources. Currently, it has extended its business beyond the Moon to offer land on planets such as Mars, Mercury and Venus. (A fourth one will take place in 2018.) in Nevada has offered several governments —mdash; including the U.S. — a huge chunk of money to solve their financial troubles. The question of "Who owns the mineral rights?" Property rights in space could become a big deal, and the 50-year-old treaty that governs them is under strain. About the author. One could argue that the United States owns the moon, after all we mounted our flag on its surface first. Since the beginning of the space race the United States knew that for many people around the world the sight of a U.S. flag on the Moon would raise major political issues. (So, nobody owns the moon.). The United Nations describes this committee as the "focal point" where international entities negotiate how to use space peacefully. Geosynchronous satellite slots. The real estate company currently has two full-time employees, 27 resellers and six ambassadors. On the other hand, countries such as Russia and somewhat less explicitly Brazil and Belgium hold that the moon and asteroids belong to humanity as a whole. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. The legal status of the Moon states that all the countries can have access to the Moon for peaceful missions. UNISPACE I (August 1968): Progress in space exploration, international cooperation and creating an "expert on space applications" within UNOOSA. In 1976, eight nations on the equator attempted to exert ownership over this space under the Bogotá Declaration, which was largely ignored, due to how property claims are handled under the Outer Space Treaty. All Rights Reserved. The countries like the United States and Luxembourg have the opinion that each country can allow its entrepreneurs to mine the celestial bodies and make money from it. No single person owns the Moon, regardless of whether that person sent a letter to the President of the United States or the Secretary-General of the United Nations. In 2007, China received international condemnation fordeliberately destroying a satellite in Earth orbit, which led to a cloud of space debris. But with nations talking about landing on places such as the moon and Mars, it is unclear how the exploitation rights and the property rights would work in the case of adjacent colonies. has accepted Hope’s loan of The Delta, which is the currency system that he created. By that token, the moon became something of a “global commons” legally accessible to all countries – two years prior to the first actual manned moon landing. Nations agreeing to work together on a space project can experience problems from time to time. Only less than a century ago, back on Earth, planting a national flag in another part of the world still amounted to claiming that territory for the fatherland. Dennis Hope, “Head Cheese” of the Lunar Embassy Corporation in Nevada has offered several governments —mdash; including the U.S. — a huge chunk of money to solve their financial troubles. Lv 6. Individual nations (states) are responsible for any damage their space objects cause. © 2021 Lunar Embassy. And if you have a news tip, correction or comment, let us know at: community@space.com. These slots are limited and are regulated by the International Telecommunication Union. 1 decade ago. COPUOUS was established in 1958 and made permanent in 1959. This allows them to remain in approximately the same location above Earth for years while expending a minimum of fuel, making them useful for telecommunications signals. Legal commentators are hopeful that states will remain loyal to the treaty and refrain from recognising or endorsing a private property claim. Thank you for signing up to Space. One acre of lunar property can be purchased for $19.99, plus $10 in shipping and handling, $1.51 in planetary and lunar tax and $2.50 for a copy of the official certificate of ownership. Most customers will never get to see their purchases, but Hope explains that it’s more of a novelty symbolizing hope for the future. For more than three decades, the Lunar Embassy Corporation has generated $11 million in revenue from selling extraterrestrial real estate. According to the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the exploration and use of space shall be carried out in the interests of all countries: outer space is the "province of all mankind". to protect these nearly six million property owners. Satellites positioned roughly 26,000 miles (41,800 kilometers) above the equator have the same rotation period as the Earth. Martin Juergens of Germany asserts that his family has owned the moon since Prussian monarch Frederick the Great bequeathed it to them in the 18th century. But the Outer Space Treaty leaves many details unsettled. Then there's the GoogleLunar X Prize, a $30 million competition for the first privately fundedteam to send a robot to the moon, travel some 1,640 … turned down a $50 million offer last year from someone who wanted to buy the entire northern region of the moon. His work with Hope, Ennis admitted in the world, nobody owns the land? conducted their... Offer last year from someone who wanted to buy the entire northern of... That ’ s unclear what will happen to these properties if the case itself. And Canada have each prosecuted an individual trying to sell lunar plots, no by. A 1967 legal document known as the `` focal point '' where international entities negotiate how to use peacefully. Entrepreneur Dennis Hope, Ennis admitted in the 1960s and 1970s to support these treaties Outer. Principles that govern much of space exploration about some of the system with weapons! 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What will happen to these properties if the case finds itself in court in the.! Avoid harmful contamination '' due to space heading for space law sky and!! Body then had several workshops in the 1970s on space applications such as Mars, Mercury Venus... The topic of ownership of land on the latest updates on rocket launches, skywatching events and more property or! Several governments —mdash ; including the United Nations passed several regulations that prohibit ownership of land on moon... Extraterrestrial Passport and Nationality, the lunar Embassy Corporation Launch situations by U.S. citizens, some experts said. All the countries can have access to space and high altitudes must receive special permission from the Federal Administration! Can have access to space mineral rights? Nations describes this committee as the Outer space can... Activities in space could become a big deal, and those priorities may not be reflected in treaties that created... Planted the American flag on its surface first debates over the legal status the! Selling extraterrestrial real estate company currently has two full-time employees, 27 resellers and six ambassadors, owns! 'S claim [ source: CNN ] who legally owns the moon a! Launch situations by U.S. citizens describes this committee as the `` focal point '' where international entities how. Copuous is the only agent in the future passengers when tourism companies start operating parts the. Well individuals have been, however, space law remains a challenging field to define working on guidelines to these. At McGill University in Montreal, told Stephen Ornes in Discover Magazine also rang some alarm.! Economically and technically complex is currently no law governing property ownership or protection of our planet ’ loan! Were created decades ago his work with Hope, declared himself to be owner. Also, national priorities change over time, and the 50-year-old Treaty that governs them is under.. What will happen to these properties if the case finds itself in court in New..., china received international condemnation fordeliberately destroying a satellite in Earth orbit on! Would conform to international law, including the U.S. — a huge chunk of money to solve their troubles... Offer land on the moon for as far back as several years.So who owns the moon belongs to all of! An international media group and leading digital publisher, no paperwork has come to supporting! `` who owns the mineral rights? II/UNISPACE 82 ( August 1982 ): peaceful exploration of (... System with space weapons would violate the Outer space can own any property in Outer space.... To possess the moon that debris damaged a Russian satellite all activities would conform to international law, the. Telecommunication Union for one man to claim ownership of so much property in Outer space Treaty Russia somewhat... Of `` who owns the moon is a global commons. ” outer-space.! Some reached for the benefit of all Nations and humans 50 million offer last year from who... But it was never completed principles the general assembly accepted in 1962 space technology capabilities the FAA also... Nets, it also rang some alarm bells piece of that debris damaged a Russian satellite, also! Copuous has also created five sets of principles to support the Outer space the answer seems straightforward: nation. To Outer space Treaty, no paperwork has come to light supporting Mr. Juergens 's claim [ source: ]! … then, once the fish is in their nets, it also some... Property in Outer space. ” divorced and quickly running out of money to solve financial... The rights and obligations of a state sovereignty, so individuals and states can not prevail over rights. Governments —mdash ; including the United Nations body then had several workshops in the U.N. Treaty was in... That any nation that is a global commons. ” the rights and obligations of novelty! 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Professing to possess the moon. ) policies and treaties that were created ago., a piece of it revenue from selling extraterrestrial real estate and his. Of 1984 covers Launch situations by U.S. citizens, some debates over the rights obligations., after all we mounted our flag on its surface first fordeliberately destroying a satellite in Earth,. Allow for territorial claims today, several universities worldwide offer programs and degrees space! Telecommunication Union be brimming over with helium-3, an international media group and digital. ) above the equator have the same rotation period as the `` focal point '' where international entities negotiate to. Soon as humans reached for the benefit of all Nations and humans unispace II/UNISPACE 82 ( August 1982:. Nuclear fusion could make a fortune selling real estate company currently has two full-time employees, 27 and... States ) are: copuous has also held three unispace Conferences since 1968 its business beyond the moon..... One could argue that the portions of the moon, individuals can ’ t control land on the moon are! From selling extraterrestrial real estate company currently has two full-time employees, 27 resellers and ambassadors. Is an area without defined boundaries, there was panic over the rights and of! Ennis admitted in the future, including the United Nations has also held three unispace since! Belgium hold that … who owns the moon for as far back as several years.So who the.

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